Sulfur hexafluoride (Sulfr hexafluoride) emission estimates for China: an

Abstract. Sulfur hexafluoride (Sulfr hexafluoride) is the most potent greenhouse gas regulated under the Kyoto Protocol, with a high global warming potential. In this study, gaz sf6 emissions from China were inventoried for 1990-2010 and projected to 2020. Results reveal that the highest sf6 gas emission contribution originates from the electrical equipment sector (about 70%), followed by the magnesium production sector, the semiconductor manufacture sector and the sf6 gas production sector (each about 10%).Get price

Implementation Of Treatment Recovery Of the sf6 gas Gas

6 containing a high amount of decomposition products due to electrical normal interruption. AVANTEC has developed a SF 6 gas treatment technology, which aims at avoiding its destruction by a proper recycling of the polluted SF 6 gas, as it is described in this paper. A pilot installation was set,Get price

Byproducts of Sulfur Hexafluoride (Sulfr hexafluoride) Use in the Electric

the decomposition products and concentrations formed under actual conditions can vary depending on the equipment used and the type of electrical discharge (CIGRE 1997). 1 CIGRE (the International Council on Large Electric Systems) is a permanent non-governmental and non­ profit-making international association based in France.Get price

sf6 gas Decomposition in Gas-Insulated Equipment - IEEE Journals

The increasing application of insulating gas as an insulating gas has led to many studies on Sulfr hexafluoride decomposition in gas-insulated equipment. In the presence-of an electric arc, spark or corona, gaz sf6 decomposes to a wide variety of chemically active products which possess completely different properties from Sulfr hexafluoride.Get price

Experimental study on the relationship between partial

insulating gas decomposition serves as an effective means for online fault detection and diagnosis of sf6 gas insulated equipments. The relationship between sf 6 decomposition products and partial discharge (PD) in sf6 gas insulated equipments remains a significant theoretical and practical issue to be addressed. Based on the simulations of protrusion discharge, floating discharge and surface discharge in sf6 gasGet price

Decomposing Mechanism of gaz sf6 under Positive DC Partial

The influence of H2O on insulating gas decomposition characteristics under positive DC partial discharge (PD) is significant. To evaluate PD fault severity in DC Sulfr hexafluoride-insulated equipment using the production characteristics of sf 6 decomposition components, the corresponding relationship and mathematical expression between the production of Sulfr hexafluoride decomposition components and the H2O content should beGet price

Adsorption of insulating gas Decomposed Products over ZnO(101̅0

This review presents an introduction to the sensor applications of TiO2 nanotube arrays (TNTAs) in sulfur hexafluoride (sf 6)-insulated equipment, which is used to evaluate and diagnose the insulation status of sf6 gas-insulated equipment by detecting their typical decomposition products of insulating gas: sulfur dioxide (SO2), thionyl fluoride (SOF2), and sulfuryl fluoride (SO2F2).Get price

OSA | Photoacoustic H2S Gas Sensor for Sulfr hexafluoride Decomposition

A photoacoustic hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas sensor for sulfur hexafluoride (sf 6) decomposition analysis in an electric power system was developed. A detection limit of 109 ppb was achieved.Get price

Optical technology for detecting the decomposition products

Technology for Detecting Sulfr hexafluoride Decomposition Products. With the development of optical detection technology, researchers are pursuing higher detection accuracy, higher sensitivity, and faster detection time. Equally, it is hoped that the structure would be as simple and compact as possible for onsite or on-line monitoring.Get price

Changing epidemiological patterns of HIV and AIDS in China in

Methods: The reporting incidence (RI) and mortality data on HIV and AIDS in China covering 31 provinces from 2004 to 2014 were collected from the Chinese Public Health Science Data Center. To decompose the time-series data, Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) was applied to properly describe the trends of HIV and AIDS incidence.Get price

Comparison of 5% Sulfur Hexafluoride Versus 100% Air

Abstract. Purpose: To compare the rebubbling rate and clinical outcomes of Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) with 5% sulfur hexafluoride (gaz sf6) gas versus 100% air as a tamponade for graft attachment. Methods: Retrospective, comparative, interventional case series including 368 consecutive pseudophakic eyes with Fuchs endothelial dystrophy or pseudophakic bullous keratopathy that underwent DMEK in a tertiary referral center between October 2010 and August 2015 using either airGet price

Calcium carbide - Wikipedia

Production. Calcium carbide is produced industrially in an electric arc furnace from a mixture of lime and coke at approximately 2,200 °C (3,990 °F). This is an endothermic reaction requiring 110 kilocalories (460 kJ) per mole and high temperatures to drive off the carbon monoxide.Get price

SULFUR HEXAFLUORIDE HAZARD SUMMARY Sulfur Hexafluoride

The New Jersey Right to Know Act requires most employers to label chemicals in the workplace and requires public employers to provide their employees with information and training concerning chemical hazards and controls. The federal OSHA Hazard Communication Standard, 1910.1200, requires private employers to provide similar training andGet price

Anaerobic digestion - Wikipedia

Anaerobic digestion occurs naturally in some soils and in lake and oceanic basin sediments, where it is usually referred to as "anaerobic activity". This is the source of marsh gas methane as discovered by Alessandro Volta in 1776.Get price

2. CHEMISTRY OF DISINFECTANTS AND DISINFECTANT BY-PRODUCTS 2

However, production of chlorine dioxide, its decomposition and reaction with NOM lead to the formation of by-products such as chlorite (ClO 2 –), a compound that is of health concern. If used as a primary disinfectant followed by a chloramine residual in the distribution system, ozone can eliminate the need for contactGet price

Accumulation of natural sf6 gas in the sedimentary aquifers of

Accumulation of natural sf6 gas in the sedimentary aquifers of the North China Plain as a restriction on groundwater dating. von Rohden C(1), Kreuzer A, Chen Z, Aeschbach-Hertig W. Author information: (1)Institute of Environmental Physics, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany. [email protected]Get price

The decline in China’s fertility level: a decomposition

The main driving force behind China’s TFR decline is examined, and an attempt is made to predict its future fertility trend. First the fertility change, and recent relaxation of policies in China, are introduced, then the decomposition methods and results for the changes in TFR and NRR are presented.Get price

Regulation of Air Pollution: South Africa

I. IntroductionII. National Environmental Management: Air Quality ActIII. Fuel Emission StandardsIV. Carbon Tax BillSouth Africa’s GHG emissions are among the highest in the world and its absolute carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions rank among the top twenty countries, “with emissions per capita in the region of 10 metric tons per annum.”The 2011 National Climate Change White Paper described this challenge as follows: South Africa has national and international legal obligation to reduce its emissions. The Bill of Rights section of the South African Constitution includes an environment clause, which states that South Africa is party to a number of multinational environmental agreements. These include the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), which South Africa ratified in 1997; the Kyoto Protocol, which South Africa ratified in 2002; and the Paris Agreement on Climate Change, ratified by South Africa in 2016.In the 2009 Copenhagen Climate Change Conference, South Africa committed to reducing its GHG emissions by 34% below its current levels (see below) by 2020 and 42% below c...Get price

Sulfur hexafluoride (sf 6) versus perfluoropropane (C3F8

Apr 01, 2016 · Background To compare early visual and anatomical outcomes after either sulfur hexafluoride (gaz sf6) or perfluoropropane (C3F8) tamponade for macular hole repair. Methods 147 eyes affected by primary full-thickness macular hole underwent pars plana vitrectomy with dye assisted removal of the internal limiting membrane and gas tamponade. Prone position was prescribed for 48 h after surgery. AllGet price

Collisional Decomposition of sf 6 | NIST

Sep 01, 2000 · Abstract Insulating gas mixtures containing SF 6 have been promoted to serve as replacements for pure SF 6 in order to reduce SF 6 atmospheric emission. It has been argued that some synergism may be achieved by choosing proper buffer gases in mixtures with SF 6 such that the buffer gases efficiently slow down electrons into an energy range where the electron attachment cross section for SF 6Get price

Gas Insulated Ring Main Unit RVAC - Eaton

sf 6 gas will resolve into subfluorides. After cooling down, these active subfluorides will quickly return back to sf 6 gas. Therefore, gaz sf6 gas which is used under sealing for a long time will not decrease or deteriorate, although under the effect of arc extinguishing several times. The amount of arc decomposition depends onGet price

Figure 3 from A Novel Gas Chromatography with a Pulsed

Figure 3. Chromatogram of insulating gasO2N2CF4C3F8SO2SOF2 SO2F2 and S2OF10 - "A Novel Gas Chromatography with a Pulsed Discharge Helium Ionization Detector for Measurements of Sulfur Hexafluoride Gas Sampled from Electrical Equipment"Get price

Gas tamponade recommended for retinal detachment involving

Octafluoropropace (C3F8) and sulfur hexafluoride (gaz sf6) are the typical gases utilized in vitrectomy surgery for tamponade. Visual recovery after retinal detachment surgery is limited by the length of time that gas remains in the eye. C3F8 has a longer half-life than gaz sf6 gas.Get price

The Facts About Ammonia - health.ny.gov

AvailabilityResourcesOverviewPropertiesUsesSafetyTreatmentDiagnosisA copy of the The Facts About Ammonia (Technical Information) is available in Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF, 63 KB, 3pg.)Get price

Decomposition of Sulfr hexafluoride in an RF plasma environment.

Shih M, Lee WJ, Tsai CH, Tsai PJ, Chen CY. Sulfur hexafluoride (SFd)-contained gas is a common pollutant emitted during the etching process used in the semiconductor industry. This study demonstrated the application of radio-frequency (RF) plasma in the decomposition of gaz sf6. The decomposition fraction of Sulfr hexafluoride [etasf 6 (C (in)-C (out))/C (in) x 100%] and the mole fraction profile of the products were investigated as functions of input power and feed O2/gaz sf6 ratio in an SiO2 reactor.Get price

Sulfur Hexafluoride Use in DMEK Safe to 3 Years

At 3 years of follow-up, the mean corrected distance visual acuity was similar between the two groups. In the gaz sf6 group, it improved from 0.48 ± 0.45 logMAR to 0.04 ± 0.23 and from 0.67 ± 0.45Get price

Shale oil extraction - Wikipedia

In the 10th century, the Arabian physician Masawaih al-Mardini (Mesue the Younger) wrote of his experiments in extracting oil from "some kind of bituminous shale". The first shale oil extraction patent was granted by the British Crown in 1684 to three people who had "found a way to extract and make great quantities of pitch, tarr, and oyle out of a sort of stone".Get price

Sulfur hexafluoride | F6S - PubChem

Sulfur hexafluoride is a sulfur coordination entity consisting of six fluorine atoms attached to a central sulfur atom. It is the most potent greenhouse gas currently known, with a global warming potential of 23,900 times that of CO2 over a 100 year period (Sulfr hexafluoride has an estimated lifetime in the atmosphere of between 800 and 3,000 years).Get price

DISSOCIATION OF SULFUR HEXAFLUORIDE TRACER GAS IN THE

Dec 22, 2005 · The second type of interference comes from the primary and secondary products of the sf6 gas breakdown, mainly sulfuric acid, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen fluoride, and fine particulate matter. In the presence of -5ppm insulating gas, the total airborne concentrations of these species increased by a factor of 4 to 10.Get price